This is worker bee (female). Smallest one. Comes with different color that depends on rass. Have many jobs over the life cycle. Only ones that stings.
This is drone (male). This one only eats (and not himself) and mates. It is much larger than worker bee, but not as long and thin as queen bee. Won't sting.
This is queen bee. The boss. The most important "thing" in beekeeping. Comes with different colours depends on the rass. Won't sting.
In here you can see the difference. You can see that drone is more oval and "fat" when queen is much longer and thinner.
This is sealed and open (you can see larveys) worker brood. This queen is doing fantastic job.
This is drone comb and sealed drone brood. Drone comb is much bigger and higher. You can cut out drone brood to reduce the varroa population natural way.
You can see the difference between worker brood and drone brood.
This is difference between sealed worker brood, pollen comb and honey comb.
Pollen comes with different colours depends on the source.
This is pollen, nectar and honey. Honey is always sealed. If it is not sealed, it is nectar, but when frame is 2/3 sealed honey than it is okey to harvest it.
Those are sealed queen cells. Within few days this colony has a new queen and old one is flying away with 1/3 of your colony or been killed. It is wise to make few nucs yourself but later about that.
This is the start of queen cup. It is not queen cell or queen cup when there is no egg inside it. You may consider making some extra room for the colony.
Usually this is sign of laying worker bee. Check for the queen. Check for the queen ones more. If give them a frame of eggs and larvey. If this is not workind than empty all your bees to the ground 10-15 feet from the hive stand and put your hive back.
3. Basic equipment
There are different hives with different confideration. I can recommend langstroth hive with deep frames. Less the different frame sizes than better and easier frame management. But is up to you. If this is just a hobby for you than doesn't matter. Just have fun.
You need at least 2 colonies, because when something happens (like you lose queen) than you can do something about it. 2 hives, that means 8 hive bodys (langstroth deep) or 12 bodys (langstroth super). 80 frames (langstroth deep) or 120 frames (langstroth super) with foundation. 2 roofs and 2 bottoms.
You need a bee suit (halfsuit) and some good gloves. Or actually mosquito suit works as well but under that you have to have some clothing. Welding gloves works as well as the special beekeeper gloves.
You need smoker and hive tool. Smoker can be cheapest one, no problem. You do not need special hive tool because just a knife works as well.
You need a hand excluder. I have 20 colonies and 4 frame hand excluder is doing very good job. You need to keep your costs down. It takes time but you can do few hours every night. So no problem.
*All the pictures are from internet and I don't own them.